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Emissions

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Emissions Articles

Below is a list of articles that have been published on this topic.
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An Eye in the Sky

There can be little doubt that carbon emissions need to be reduced. It is increasingly evident that the unabated burning of fossil fuels will result in economic, environmental and social upheaval and, over the long term, security of supply makes transitioning to renewables a win-win situation.

Stack Emission Monitoring

Over the past 20 years UK regulatory bodies have taken a proactive stance in developing pragmatic and innovative approaches to industrial emissions control. Certainly in the field of Emission Monitoring the UK has taken an influential role in developing an approach which, when looking at the international stage, may be considered as best practice. There has been no hint of ‘gold plating’ requirements emanating from the EU, in fact quite the opposite, the approach has been to improve and make them cost effective and practical.

The UK’s Air Quality Networks

The industrial revolution caused arguably the greatest societal shift in history. Agrarian societies became industrial, the population exploded and technological development accelerated rapidly. But whilst industry and newfound prosperity solved many existing problems, the fossil fuels that powered it caused unprecedented damage to the environment.

Landfills and Drones

Landfills and drones – two words that do not easily lend themselves to an image of environmental responsibility; and two words that, when put together, perhaps invoke images of dystopian futures such as those portrayed by Arnold Schwarzenegger.

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Urban Emissions

The start of 2016 saw London breaking annual pollution limits across a number of destinations within days of the new year; a situation that has happened a number of years in a row.

Fugitive Dust

This article describes a new approach, which aims to create bespoke modelling methods that are more refined for site-specific predictions.

Stationary Source Emissions

David Graham looks at the new standard on flue gas flow rate measurement which was published in 2013: EN ISO 16911 ‘Stationary Source Emissions – Manual and automatic determination of velocity and volume flow rate in ducts.

Emissions Compliance

Exhaust emissions from marine diesel engines mainly comprise nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour, plus smaller quantities of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, various hydrocarbons at different states of combustion and complex particulate matter (PM). It is these smaller quantities, together with CO2, that are of most concern to human health and the environment. Adverse effects are experienced at local, regional and global levels.

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Arctic Metrology

The polar environment is under a constantly increasing interest: climate change comes first and comes faster in the arctic. Multitudes of observations are needed to understand the environment and its evolution. The traceability of data becomes fundamental for the comparability of the many and different measurements’ results.

Safeguarding our Environment

Ensuring they are adhering to environmental regulations is a top priority for oil and gas organisations. Achieving these standards remains a challenge to the industry, however, as regulations evolve and factors such as carbon emissions trading become more sophisticated in the mission to maintain best practice and safeguard the environment.

Monitoring Standards

In the UK, as in all Member EU states, European (EN) Standards are used as the basis for most emissions monitoring requirements.

Detecting Greenhouse Gases

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Monitoring Bioaerosols

Understanding Leachate Analysis

CO2 Monitoring Technologies

Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems

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Dusty Forensics

6. Monitoring Requirements

Cementing Emissions

Challenging Emissions

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Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Extraction

The arrival of commercial shale gas exploration in Europe, on the back of its success in the United States, has already proven controversial. There are large reserves and its successful production is likely to be welcomed in terms of its impact on energy supply and prices. In the Unites States (US) gas prices have dropped by almost an order of magnitude over recent years, and continue to drop - a very different picture to that experienced in Europe until recently.

Measuring Our Environment [Mar 2012]

Jane Burston of the National Physical Laboratory explains why the development of a measurement infrastructure is vital to mitigating climate change. Measurement is a fundamental part of our everyday lives. From medical treatment, to sending documents over email and international trading, many of the things we take for granted today would not be able to operate without measurement. As new challenges and technologies arise, the measurement infrastructure needs to stay one step ahead.

Gas Detection Technology

Enormous quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) exist within Arctic ice and frozen soils, so with the threat of global warming, a clear understanding of the relationship between GHG in the atmosphere and in the ice/soil is vital, because melting of permafrost could cause a dangerous climate tipping point.

Gas Chromatography Sampling Emissions

The government’s Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 2007 sets national air quality standards to protect human health, and is the main policy instrument for improving air quality. Policies set out in the strategy support the achievement of national air quality objectives and EU air quality limit values.

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Emissions Monitoring

This work sets out to determine the extent to which the economic value of power generation from landfill gas differs from the market value of the CO2 equivalent landfill gas. To achieve this purpose, a cost-benefit model has been created in order to identify the different costs and revenues associated with a landfill operational site. Three different scenarios have been analysed: small, medium and large landfill sites, all of them based in the UK.

Air Quality - an Overview

Today the battle is focused on the local scale. The concentration of pollutants formed from the product of combustion can be accurately predicted, their sources are so many; the effects of more toxic species, heavy metals for example, are harder to monitor as their concentration can vary wildly, both spatially and temporally.

Chromatography - The Science of Separation [Jun 2010]

Chromatography is the science of separation, with the analyte of interest being in a mobile phase, passing through a series of stationary phases. This allows the analyte to be isolated for quantification through a wide variety of techniques. This article looks at how chromatography is used to separate the noble gas krypton from air.

Environmental Monitoring Standards and Methods - Selection of standards for emission monitoring

With the increasing requirement for the installation of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) it is important that capital investment is protected and that instrumentation gives reliable, meaningful and repeatable data. Fitting MCERTS-approved equipment is one element but it is extremely important that the system is verified. The verification process requires the use of standard reference methods to underpin the data.

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Continuous Emissions Monitoring

The topic of monitoring stationary sources emissions is very broad and many books have been published on the subject. This article is aimed at giving an overview of some of the techniques employed.

Continuous Emissions Monitoring

Air pollution is an important issue of concern to the general public as exposure to low levels of some toxic species emitted by industrial processes may be hazardous to human health or impact adversely on the environment. This article describes how the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), a National Measurement Institute (NMI) in the UK supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS), has been involved in assisting Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the development of the next generation of novel continuous emissions monitors (CEMs).

Air Emission Monitoring

The effects of the EU Directives are being felt by all involved in the majority of industry. One of the key elements of the directives is the requirement for quality monitoring data not only for compliance testing but also for calibration of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS).

Continuous Particulate Emissions Monitoring

The subject of Continuous Particulate emission monitoring to satisfy regulatory requirements is of relatively new interest as a result of recent changes in legislation. Historically regulators were concerned with the visual impact of the discharge from a stack and therefore emission limits were expressed in terms of colour or opacity. However with the advent of emission limits for a process being defined in terms of mass concentration (expressed in mg/ m3) the issue of continuous particulate monitoring has become a new and growing regulatory requirement.

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Principles of Landfill Odour Emission and Control

Throughout most countries in Europe by far the greatest proportion of waste is disposed of to landfill. In the UK this represents approximately 83% of all waste disposed. Odours from landfill represent the single highest cause of complaint from waste management processes in the UK. These concerns also represent one of the most commonly cited reasons for refusal of extensions and applications for landfill operations. So is this a problem that we should be concerned with or an issue that will fade away as our dependency on landfill reduces and new technologies contribute to managing waste.

An Introduction to Carbon Trading

The international market for carbon credits grew in value to an estimated US $30 billion in 2006, three times greater than the previous year, it is predicted that demand will grow as countries in the developed world are unlikely to meet their Kyoto target of reducing their GHG emissions by an average of 5.2% below 1990 levels by 2012.

Continuous Emissions Monitoring

There has never been such a wide range of analysers and systems available for continuous emissions monitoring from industrial processes as there is today. In the UK there are many manufacturers and distributors offering CEMS (continuous emissions monitoring systems) using a variety of technologies. These include Ultraviolet (UV) and Infrared (IR) absorption, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), chemiluminescence and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for gaseous species as well as various techniques for particulate monitors.

Combustion and Emissions Monitoring

The MCERTS (Monitoring Certification) scheme, possibly the most developed quality assurance scheme for environmental emissions monitoring in the world, was developed to ensure quality environmental monitoring data was generated for the largest and most polluting sites. However, the obvious benefits of the scheme has ensured that it is becoming the minimum standard demanded by many smaller site operators and is being adopted beyond the UK.

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Accounting For Industrial Emissions

The EU ETS Monitoring and Reporting Guidelines are undergoing revision in anticipation of the second compliance cycle of Directive 2003/87/EC - the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme, which starts in 2008. This article highlights the changes introduced that call for standardisation (i.e. ISO, CEN, and BS standards), these relate mainly to the future expansion of emissions trading to non-CO2 GHGs and new industries. In particular, the opportunities offered to international standards makers to assist the successful extension of mass emissions trading to wider geographical scales.

Gas Detection In The Environment

Awareness of air pollution issues is everywhere

Problems with Pitots Reporting Emissions

Reliable and accurate measurements of gas flows in stacks underpin the monitoring of emissions. Flow measurement, however has often been the poor relation in stack sampling. The measurement of flow has significant impact on stack emissions monitoring in a number of ways. In addition to enabling concentration measurements to be converted to emission fluxes, flow measurement is also necessary to demonstrate that the gas flow profile in the stack meets the requirements of the method. The most routinely used stack and duct gas flow monitoring techniques are based on the use of Pitot tubes. Pitot tube measurements are also used to enable isokinetic sampling to be achieved and verified. Issues with Pitot tube measurements can therefore result in significant errors in reported emissions.

Emissions Trading

The formulation of a market needs a buyer and a seller and, at times, due to high transaction costs, a specialised broker.

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Gas Detectors

Gas detectors do 'exactly what it says on the tin' – they detect the presence, and in many cases levels, of gases.

 

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