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Pollution

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Pollution Articles

Below is a list of articles that have been published on this topic.
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An Eye in the Sky

There can be little doubt that carbon emissions need to be reduced. It is increasingly evident that the unabated burning of fossil fuels will result in economic, environmental and social upheaval and, over the long term, security of supply makes transitioning to renewables a win-win situation.

Stack Emission Monitoring

Over the past 20 years UK regulatory bodies have taken a proactive stance in developing pragmatic and innovative approaches to industrial emissions control. Certainly in the field of Emission Monitoring the UK has taken an influential role in developing an approach which, when looking at the international stage, may be considered as best practice. There has been no hint of ‘gold plating’ requirements emanating from the EU, in fact quite the opposite, the approach has been to improve and make them cost effective and practical.

Oil in Water Analysis

Oil is one of the most common types and highly visible forms of water pollution. As it can easily spread, even small quantities can potentially cause harm to the aquatic environment.

Lead in the Environment

Lead is an environmental contaminant of concern both in the lithosphere and hydrosphere. It is a non-essential element that is poisonous to both humans and animals. Its health risk has been known for thousands of years, with lead poisoning documented in ancient civilisations.

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Arctic Weather

The Arctic is a region as enthralling in its beauty as it is inhospitable and unforgiving to those venturing into its chilly embrace. Nevertheless, an indigenous Inuit people have for millennia scratched out a living from this region, but it is only in the last 1,000 years, and then falteringly, that Europeans have paid any regard to it.

Leachability Testing

Few people ever pass a development site and think: ‘I wonder what type of leachability test was carried out here?’ But then, few people outside the construction and infrastructure industries have the slightest idea what leachability tests are.

The Emissions Scandal

The debate surrounding health damaging air pollution emissions took centre stage following the VW scandal. This article addresses some of the key points in the controversy, and explores the role the law plays at present and how it may develop.

Urban Emissions

The start of 2016 saw London breaking annual pollution limits across a number of destinations within days of the new year; a situation that has happened a number of years in a row.

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Marine Methane

The Arctic is subject to amplified climate warming, and there is potential for greenhouse gas release from thawing submarine reservoirs.

Emissions Compliance

Exhaust emissions from marine diesel engines mainly comprise nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour, plus smaller quantities of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, various hydrocarbons at different states of combustion and complex particulate matter (PM). It is these smaller quantities, together with CO2, that are of most concern to human health and the environment. Adverse effects are experienced at local, regional and global levels.

Flaring’s Burning Issues

Capturing flared or vented gas presents an opportunity for oil and gas operators to reduce environmental impact as well as providing the prospect of generating an additional revenue stream.

Arctic Metrology

The polar environment is under a constantly increasing interest: climate change comes first and comes faster in the arctic. Multitudes of observations are needed to understand the environment and its evolution. The traceability of data becomes fundamental for the comparability of the many and different measurements’ results.

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Environmental Quality Standards

It was in 2008 that the European Parliament and Council first published the Environmental Quality Standards Directive. This publication lays down environmental quality standards (EQS) for priority substances and certain other pollutants as provided for in Article 16 of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD), with the aim of achieving good surface water chemical status and in accordance with the provisions and objectives of Article 4 of that Directive. As a Europe wide directive, each member state has a plan for both assessing their water bodies and achieving compliance with the annual average and maximum concentrations, as set out in the document.

Measuring Oil in Produced Water

Separation and produced water re-injection or discharge forms an integral part of subsea processing strategy. Its wider acceptance within the oil and gas industry, however, will depend on the availability of a reliable and continuous measurement of the quality of the water being injected or discharged.

The True Cost of Water

Without adequate water supplies and an understanding of the true value of water, many businesses would be incapable of operating. Defining the true value of water helps businesses make intelligent decisions regarding how they source, use, reuse and dispose of water in order to maintain profitable economics of operation.

Safeguarding our Environment

Ensuring they are adhering to environmental regulations is a top priority for oil and gas organisations. Achieving these standards remains a challenge to the industry, however, as regulations evolve and factors such as carbon emissions trading become more sophisticated in the mission to maintain best practice and safeguard the environment.

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Environmental Forensics

Oil spills and contaminations that have resulted in disastrous economic and environmental damage that may last for decades have made the news headlines across the world in recent years. The lawsuits surrounding them have proved just as newsworthy, with billions of pounds of compensation being paid out by those found to be responsible.

Monitoring Standards

In the UK, as in all Member EU states, European (EN) Standards are used as the basis for most emissions monitoring requirements.

Analysing the Danube

Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems

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A Month in Monitoring

A Month in Monitoring [Sep 2012]. Published in AWE International - Air, Water & Environmental monitoring, analysis and control of industrial process emissions in Europe and the Middle East. AWE International (Air, Water and Environment) is the only A4 glossy magazine that reports to Europe and the Middle East on matters relevant to the environmental analysis industry.

Metals in the Environment

Metals in the Environment [Sep 2012]. Published in AWE International - Air, Water & Environmental monitoring, analysis and control of industrial process emissions in Europe and the Middle East. AWE International (Air, Water and Environment) is the only A4 glossy magazine that reports to Europe and the Middle East on matters relevant to the environmental analysis industry.

Drying Out The Water Cycle

The global demand for goods is placing greater pressure on our available water reserves, with water scarcity an issue that an increasing number of regions already have to cope with. Coupled to this demand are projected climate changes to our rainfall, snowfall and temperature patterns.

Measuring Our Environment [Mar 2012]

Jane Burston of the National Physical Laboratory explains why the development of a measurement infrastructure is vital to mitigating climate change. Measurement is a fundamental part of our everyday lives. From medical treatment, to sending documents over email and international trading, many of the things we take for granted today would not be able to operate without measurement. As new challenges and technologies arise, the measurement infrastructure needs to stay one step ahead.

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Measuring Stack Gas Emissions [Mar 2012]

The Environment Agency has issued Technical Guidance Note (TGN) M22, within its series of monitoring TGNs, to provide guidance on necessary requirements when using manual extractive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic instruments to measure emissions of pollutants from industrial stacks. It is not applicable to FTIR used for continuous emissions monitoring.

A Real Emergency

Working in the offshore oil and gas industry for a very long time (more than 30 years) and meeting and working with people from different countries was a privilege. In the last offshore company that I worked with I was assigned to both the HSE (Health, Safety and Environment) group as well as to the Marine department, which encompasses rig moves, diving work hire and supervision of marine vessels and barges in addition to the oil spill combating activities.

Chemical Contamination

Chemicals play a major role in everyday life. They are used extensively throughout industrial sectors as well as in private residences. Products from the chemical industry provide the foundations for nearly all manufacturing activities. They are found in the making of a wide variety of products ranging from pesticides to man-made fabric, and even cosmetics.

Gas Detection Technology

Enormous quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) exist within Arctic ice and frozen soils, so with the threat of global warming, a clear understanding of the relationship between GHG in the atmosphere and in the ice/soil is vital, because melting of permafrost could cause a dangerous climate tipping point.

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Gas Chromatography Sampling Emissions

The government’s Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 2007 sets national air quality standards to protect human health, and is the main policy instrument for improving air quality. Policies set out in the strategy support the achievement of national air quality objectives and EU air quality limit values.

CO2 Capture and Storage

With climate change mitigation remaining high on the agenda of key decision makers across the world, the portfolio of technological solutions to cut carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is ever expanding. One medium-term solution is CO2 capture and storage (CCS), a technique through which carbon emitted from fossil fuel combustion is captured from the combustion process, transported and then permanently stored, usually underground either terrestrially or at sea.

Environmental Management - The Nitrogen Dioxide Challenge

Achieving the EU limit values for the protection of human health has proved difficult, particularly for NO2 and to a lesser extent PM10, by Dr Claire Holman, Chair, Air Panel, Chartered Institute of Water and Environmental Management, based on the Panel’s Policy Position Statement on nitrogen dioxide and its evidence to the Environmental Audit Commission investigation on Air Quality.

Environmental Noise Pollution

Environmental noise pollution, what causes it, how it affects us, how we measure it and what is being done about it.

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Spectroscopy in Space

Extreme weather, droughts, floods, famine, disease, migration of populations and threats to national security are just some of the predicted impacts of significant and rapid climate change. The quality of the air we breathe is strongly linked with human health. Various studies have shown links between episodes of poor air quality and increased hospital admissions and premature deaths. As worldwide industrialisation and urbanisation increases populations become increasingly exposed to polluted air.

Air Pollution - Monitoring Particulates

Clean air is an essential requirement for the health and wellbeing of both the human race and the environment we live in, but achieving it is a constant battle with air pollution. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), more than two million premature deaths each year can be attributed to the effects of urban outdoor and indoor air pollution, a shocking statistic indeed.

Environmental Monitoring Standards and Methods - Selection of standards for emission monitoring

With the increasing requirement for the installation of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) it is important that capital investment is protected and that instrumentation gives reliable, meaningful and repeatable data. Fitting MCERTS-approved equipment is one element but it is extremely important that the system is verified. The verification process requires the use of standard reference methods to underpin the data.

Nitrate Problems are Soluble

Nitrate pollution in rivers, lakes, reservoirs and underground aquifers is a major problem. However, researchers from Belgium, Malta, Poland, and the UK have developed a new low cost, environmentally friendly technology, known as 'NITRABAR' which substantially removes nitrate from groundwater. The project is an EC LIFE Environment Project that demonstrates the remediation of agricultural diffuse NITRAte polluted waters through the implementation of a permeable reactive Barrier.

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Gas Detection

Analysis Methods For Particular Harmful Gases

Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil

Soil and its uses have been neglected or have been taken for granted for centuries. The human race has been disposing of waste via the soil for as long as we have been on the earth.

Monitoring Heavy Metals

The UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network measures the concentration of metals in ambient air in order to assess the UK’s compliance with European air quality legislation and the exposure of the general population to potentially harmful compounds. This article describes the operation of the Network, and how its constituent monitoring sites around the UK have recently been reorganised in order to ensure compliance with European legislation.

Chromatography in Environmental Analysis

Gas chromatography (GC) is a technique used to separate the individual components of a complex mixture. A very small quantity of sample is needed (less than 1/1000th of a gram). The sample is injected onto one end of a chromatography column, down which gas (the carrier gas) is passing (usually helium or hydrogen). The column is situated in an oven. When the oven is cool (room temperature) only volatile compounds that boil at low temperature will evaporate from the sample and travel down the column to be detected at the far end by a detector. As the oven is heated, components of the mixture that boil at a higher temperature evaporate and are transported down the column by the flowing gas. In this way the components in the mixture are separated according to the temperatures at which they boil.

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Monitoring Climate Change

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are a major cause of global warming and climate change. Measures are now being taken on an international scale to reduce these emissions. However, progress is slow.

Monitoring Environmental Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is a problem controlled and managed by numerous pieces of legislation, standards and documents providing guidance. In the UK, each piece of guidance or legislation varies sufficiently to cause a certain degree of conflict, which can lead to confusion and conflict amongst site operators, developers, regulators and the general public.

Cleaning Up The Planet

The Filtration Society was founded in London over 40 years ago with the objective of collating existing filtration and separation technologies, actively promoting new developments and providing an important resource centre for all filter related industries.

The Threat of CO Poisoning

How employers can protect their employees at work, AND at home. Carbon monoxide has been listed under COSHH ever since the regulations were published, so it has been necessary for companies to provide a means of detection as a duty of care to their employees.

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VOC Detection and Measurement Techniques

Outlining the application of laws surrounding Volatile Organic Compounds

Not Quiet Over Noise Pollution

Noise can be annoying, interrupt conversation, disturb sleep and, in extreme conditions, cause damage. The types of noise that are experienced can be classified into some fairly broad categories: occupational noise which is experienced at work, neighbour or neighbourhood noise and environmental (ambient) noise caused by transport and industry.

Large Scale Biofuel Production

A threat or an opportunity for sustainable land management?

Selected Examples of Fuel Use of Waste

The title of this paper indicates that two issues more important in the early 2000s than even a decade or so previously are going to be addressed. One is the 'fuel use of waste'. The finiteness of reserves of conventional fuels, in particular oil, is becoming clearer and clearer and for part of 2006 the price of crude oil, adjusted for erosion in the value of a dollar over the period under consideration, was higher than it had been since around 1870 (yes, 1870: in 1970 a sum equivalent to $20 at the 2006 value of the dollar would buy a barrel of oil). The world consumes 80 to 85 million barrels per day of crude oil. World activity is critically dependent on the availability and price of crude oil and political ramifications of oil supply and demand are of course enormous.

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Something in the Air Monitoring Air Pollution

Air pollution reduces life expectancy and increases infant mortality. That much is well documented in Europe and internationally.

The Unseen Threat of VOCs

How photoionisation detection is used for worker protection, fenceline monitoring and environmental remediation. Organic compounds are chemicals that contain carbon and are found in all living things. Volatile organic compounds, often referred to as VOCs, are organic compounds that easily become vapours or gases.

Gas Detection

When using or being exposed to hazardous substances at work people's health may be put at risk as a result of over exposure to these materials

Ozone - a Boon and a Plague

Ozone protects and threatens us at the same time: 15 kilometres above us in the atmosphere ozone protects us against dangerous UV beams - on the surface the aggressive gas threatens our health.

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Current Issues

Health and Safety International | Issue 67 Health and Safety Middle East | Issue 43 OSA Magazine | Issue 19 AWE International | Issue 47 AMH Magazine | Issue 11 EMH Magazine | Issue 10

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