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Air Quality

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Air Quality Articles

Below is a list of articles that have been published on this topic.
Click on the title to view the whole article

An Eye in the Sky

There can be little doubt that carbon emissions need to be reduced. It is increasingly evident that the unabated burning of fossil fuels will result in economic, environmental and social upheaval and, over the long term, security of supply makes transitioning to renewables a win-win situation.

Stack Emission Monitoring

Over the past 20 years UK regulatory bodies have taken a proactive stance in developing pragmatic and innovative approaches to industrial emissions control. Certainly in the field of Emission Monitoring the UK has taken an influential role in developing an approach which, when looking at the international stage, may be considered as best practice. There has been no hint of ‘gold plating’ requirements emanating from the EU, in fact quite the opposite, the approach has been to improve and make them cost effective and practical.

A Fresh Approach

Mining expert Philip Shead explores the factors that mine operators need to take into account to optimise air quality and ensure the wellbeing of their employees.

Arctic Weather

The Arctic is a region as enthralling in its beauty as it is inhospitable and unforgiving to those venturing into its chilly embrace. Nevertheless, an indigenous Inuit people have for millennia scratched out a living from this region, but it is only in the last 1,000 years, and then falteringly, that Europeans have paid any regard to it.

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The UK’s Air Quality Networks

The industrial revolution caused arguably the greatest societal shift in history. Agrarian societies became industrial, the population exploded and technological development accelerated rapidly. But whilst industry and newfound prosperity solved many existing problems, the fossil fuels that powered it caused unprecedented damage to the environment.

Landfills and Drones

Landfills and drones – two words that do not easily lend themselves to an image of environmental responsibility; and two words that, when put together, perhaps invoke images of dystopian futures such as those portrayed by Arnold Schwarzenegger.

The Emissions Scandal

The debate surrounding health damaging air pollution emissions took centre stage following the VW scandal. This article addresses some of the key points in the controversy, and explores the role the law plays at present and how it may develop.

Urban Emissions

The start of 2016 saw London breaking annual pollution limits across a number of destinations within days of the new year; a situation that has happened a number of years in a row.

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Stationary Source Emissions

David Graham looks at the new standard on flue gas flow rate measurement which was published in 2013: EN ISO 16911 ‘Stationary Source Emissions – Manual and automatic determination of velocity and volume flow rate in ducts.

Flaring’s Burning Issues

Capturing flared or vented gas presents an opportunity for oil and gas operators to reduce environmental impact as well as providing the prospect of generating an additional revenue stream.

Arctic Metrology

The polar environment is under a constantly increasing interest: climate change comes first and comes faster in the arctic. Multitudes of observations are needed to understand the environment and its evolution. The traceability of data becomes fundamental for the comparability of the many and different measurements’ results.

Emissions Compliance

Exhaust emissions from marine diesel engines mainly comprise nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour, plus smaller quantities of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, carbon monoxide, various hydrocarbons at different states of combustion and complex particulate matter (PM). It is these smaller quantities, together with CO2, that are of most concern to human health and the environment. Adverse effects are experienced at local, regional and global levels.

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Safeguarding our Environment

Ensuring they are adhering to environmental regulations is a top priority for oil and gas organisations. Achieving these standards remains a challenge to the industry, however, as regulations evolve and factors such as carbon emissions trading become more sophisticated in the mission to maintain best practice and safeguard the environment.

Monitoring Standards

In the UK, as in all Member EU states, European (EN) Standards are used as the basis for most emissions monitoring requirements.

Detecting Greenhouse Gases

Monitoring Bioaerosols

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There’s Something In The Air

Understanding Leachate Analysis

Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems

Hold Your Breath

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Measuring Up

Gas Detection Past and Present

Clearing the Air

5. The Air That We Breathe

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Cementing Emissions

Intra-Urban Air Temperature Variation

Changing Land Use

2012-11-27 EHS News: As the world population has just passed the seven billion mark, there will be a proportional increase in global energy demands. In 2011 the International Energy Agency (IEA) projected a significant i

Diode Laser Systems In Gas Measurement

The online analysis of biogas has increased in importance with the increasing use of anaerobic digestion and the use of biogas to generate revenues. Fully automated gas analysis systems can help the operator maximise output, verify data, and give warnings of out of range parameters to safeguard installed plant.

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A Month in Monitoring

A Month in Monitoring [Sep 2012]. Published in AWE International - Air, Water & Environmental monitoring, analysis and control of industrial process emissions in Europe and the Middle East. AWE International (Air, Water and Environment) is the only A4 glossy magazine that reports to Europe and the Middle East on matters relevant to the environmental analysis industry.

Metals in the Environment

Metals in the Environment [Sep 2012]. Published in AWE International - Air, Water & Environmental monitoring, analysis and control of industrial process emissions in Europe and the Middle East. AWE International (Air, Water and Environment) is the only A4 glossy magazine that reports to Europe and the Middle East on matters relevant to the environmental analysis industry.

The Nuances of Odour Nuisance

The Nuances of Odour Nuisance [Sep 2012]. Published in AWE International - Air, Water & Environmental monitoring, analysis and control of industrial process emissions in Europe and the Middle East. AWE International (Air, Water and Environment) is the only A4 glossy magazine that reports to Europe and the Middle East on matters relevant to the environmental analysis industry.

Confined Spaces - Safe Practise

Operating in the hazardous and unpredictable shipping sector, IACS’s members have an admirably stringent approach to Confined Space safety practise, which they share with HSME readers in this edition.

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Air Quality Impacts of Shale Gas Extraction

The arrival of commercial shale gas exploration in Europe, on the back of its success in the United States, has already proven controversial. There are large reserves and its successful production is likely to be welcomed in terms of its impact on energy supply and prices. In the Unites States (US) gas prices have dropped by almost an order of magnitude over recent years, and continue to drop - a very different picture to that experienced in Europe until recently.

Measuring Stack Gas Emissions [Mar 2012]

The Environment Agency has issued Technical Guidance Note (TGN) M22, within its series of monitoring TGNs, to provide guidance on necessary requirements when using manual extractive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic instruments to measure emissions of pollutants from industrial stacks. It is not applicable to FTIR used for continuous emissions monitoring.

Preventing Respiratory Diseases

Every year, hundreds of thousands of workers across the globe are made ill by hazardous substances. They suffer lung diseases including asthma and cancer - diseases which can cost millions of pounds each year in the form of compensation to the individual and their family, for the loss to industry to replace the worker and to society more generally in terms of disabled allowances and medicines.

Gas Detection

Security and peace of mind in their oxygen sensors is what individuals need when their duties involve entering potentially hazardous environments found in numerous different industries.

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Gas Detection Technology

Enormous quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) exist within Arctic ice and frozen soils, so with the threat of global warming, a clear understanding of the relationship between GHG in the atmosphere and in the ice/soil is vital, because melting of permafrost could cause a dangerous climate tipping point.

Respiratory Disease [November 2011]

Jill Joyce, senior policy and technical advisor at the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH), discusses using respiratory protective equipment (RPE) in the workplace and the practical steps that can be taken to reduce respiratory disease.

Gas Chromatography Sampling Emissions

The government’s Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 2007 sets national air quality standards to protect human health, and is the main policy instrument for improving air quality. Policies set out in the strategy support the achievement of national air quality objectives and EU air quality limit values.

Monitoring The Air We Breathe

The air that we breathe needs to be regularly monitored and assessed to ensure ongoing quality of life. There are proven links between pollution and adverse effects on our health as well as on environmental sustainability. Therefore, we need to ensure that the amounts of pollutants in the air do not go above levels where they become dangerous to our health or to the environment.

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BA Instructor’s View

For the last 13 years I have been training personnel in the use of breathing apparatus and wanted to take this opportunity to express some thoughts I’ve had over the years regarding breathing apparatus.

Benzene Monitoring

Environmental concerns continue to exert downward pressure on the detection limits of monitoring systems. Benzene, along with other aromatics, is coming under increasing scrutiny in the European Union, and the United States is also re-examining current permissible levels.

Continuous Odour Monitoring

Composting sites generate odour nuisances along the site boundaries. The setting up of a continuous odour monitoring system based on eNose technology means operators can get a better understanding of the way unpleasant odour incidents occur and do something about their process to reduce emissions.

Gas Detection

Gases and vapours other than air can pose a threat to human life. The exact nature of this threat depends on the gas present, but in general we divide gas hazards into three main categories: • Combustible • Toxic • Asphyxiant

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Respiratory Protective Equipment [May 2011]

It is a sad fact that thousands of workers develop lung problems and cancer each year as a result of breathing in harmful quantities of dust, fumes or other airborne contaminants at work. Where toxic substances are present in the workplace and engineering controls are inadequate to reduce or eliminate them, the supply and use of Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE) is necessary.

Gas Detection

Single gas detectors, often referred to as personal gas monitors have been in service for quite a number of years. They are a regular every day sight attached to worker’s coveralls in a wide range of industries and accepted as part of the uniform much like the company badge on the very same pair of coveralls. Whether they are black, yellow, orange or blue they all perform much the same function, don’t they?

GAS DETECTION

Rob Fair, Chair of the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health’s Hazardous Industries Group, discusses gas detection with his committee members.

Respiratory Protective Equipment [March 2011]

Many workers are employed in jobs where they are potentially exposed to respiratory hazards. For example, it has been estimated that in the UK alone, about 5.5 million employees could be at risk. Exposure to respiratory hazards can cause ill health or even result in fatal diseases. The risk is not always to the lungs and respiratory passages. Substances that are toxic to other parts of the body can also enter the body via the lungs.

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Gas Detection

It’s rough on the front lines. If they listened to what these devices have to say, safety pros would learn a lot.

Environmental Management - The Nitrogen Dioxide Challenge

Achieving the EU limit values for the protection of human health has proved difficult, particularly for NO2 and to a lesser extent PM10, by Dr Claire Holman, Chair, Air Panel, Chartered Institute of Water and Environmental Management, based on the Panel’s Policy Position Statement on nitrogen dioxide and its evidence to the Environmental Audit Commission investigation on Air Quality.

Gas Detectors

Confined spaces contain two types of hazards: atmospheric and physical. About 40% of all confined space incidents involve hazardous atmospheres. For this reason regulators emphasise the requirement to analyse the air for hazardous conditions prior to entry and that spaces be monitored periodically, or in certain situations, continuously, while occupied.

Portable Gas Detectors for Landfill Gases

The key to success is understanding the monitoring environment, and the specific benefits and limitations of the sensors selected. Anyone who has ever visited or driven by a sanitary landfill is aware that they are frequently associated with the presence of (often) very smelly gases. As unpleasant as the odours can be, there is far more going on than can be detected by human senses.

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Confined Space - More Hazardous than other Workspaces

Confined space may be defined as a place where the means of entry or exit are restricted because of location, design, construction or contents. It may include tanks, tankers, tunnels, silos, sewers, flues, pipelines, sea containers or vessels. The main hazards encountered in confined spaces are fire or explosion, asphyxiation, toxicity, drowning in liquids or free flowing solids and injury or death if mechanical equipment within the confined space is inadvertently turned on while someone is still inside. These hazards are due to the presence of hazardous gases, vapours, fumes, dusts or the creation of an oxygen-deficient or oxygen-rich atmosphere.

Gas Detection - Latest developments in portable and fixed gas detection

The purpose of this article is to inform readers of a number of the latest developments in gas detection across a range of different disciplines.

Environmental Odour Monitoring

A real-time odour impact monitoring system was installed at the Sivos des 60 Bornes waste water treatment plant (WWTP), which treats the waste water of two towns, St-Hilaire-de-Riez and St-Jean-de-Monts, on the French coast in the region of Vendée. The users’ objective was to minimise odour nuisances generated by pumping stations of the waste-water system and by various components of the WWTP.

Gas Detection: Bump Testing - There Simply is No Other Option to Ensure Your Safety

True story: On a warm summer morning, the operations crew sat in the control room of a rural western US manufacturing facility. During their morning discussion, one of the operators noticed the smell of gas.

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Air Quality - an Overview

Today the battle is focused on the local scale. The concentration of pollutants formed from the product of combustion can be accurately predicted, their sources are so many; the effects of more toxic species, heavy metals for example, are harder to monitor as their concentration can vary wildly, both spatially and temporally.

Gas Detection

The certification process for gas detection equipment can be complicated in China. Gas detection manufacturers from other major trading blocks around the world will find that exporting products to the Chinese market doesn’t follow a similar route to those for European or North American approval, for example. Differences in national standards, and a stringent approval route makes Chinese approval for gas detection products confusing and time-consuming, but not without its economic advantages.

Air Quality

Occupational or Industrial Hygiene has its roots in the early 1900s and is defined as the RECOGNITION, EVALUATION and CONTROL of those factors in the workplace that may give rise to sickness and impairment of the workforce.

Confined Spaces - Making Confined Spaces Safe

From a health and safety point of view, work in confined spaces is regarded as being particularly hazardous and must be strictly controlled in order to minimise risk. However, if risk is to be adequately controlled it is first necessary to set down a definition of the term ‘confined space’ that can be used to identify the tasks involved in this style of working.

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More or Less Air Quality - Monitoring Air Quality at the Personal Scale

A synergistic collision of technologies is offering a new chance to create air quality networks at an affordable cost. Lower power, lower cost GPS plus GSM networking via mobile phone network are combining with improved low cost gas sensors that sense gas concentrations at parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. The result? Low cost air quality networks that can monitor urban air quality in real time.

Wind Measurement

This article will give an overview of the types of wind sensors available for air quality applications. The focus is on the use of ‘in-situ’ sensors rather than remote sensing techniques such as wind radars (often called wind profilers). The article will cover sensor location, a much neglected but critical aspect of wind measurement. This is often as important as the sensors themselves.

Environmental Monitoring Standards and Methods - Selection of standards for emission monitoring

With the increasing requirement for the installation of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) it is important that capital investment is protected and that instrumentation gives reliable, meaningful and repeatable data. Fitting MCERTS-approved equipment is one element but it is extremely important that the system is verified. The verification process requires the use of standard reference methods to underpin the data.

Something Not To Be Sniffed At

People’s perception of odours is a subjective matter; what one person perceives to be a pleasant odour, someone else may find unpleasant or a nuisance, which makes it difficult to assess and mitigate smells that may constitute an environmental pollutant.

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Air Pollution - Monitoring Particulates

Clean air is an essential requirement for the health and wellbeing of both the human race and the environment we live in, but achieving it is a constant battle with air pollution. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), more than two million premature deaths each year can be attributed to the effects of urban outdoor and indoor air pollution, a shocking statistic indeed.

A Fitting Tribute to Respiratory Safety

Modern respiratory protection represents 200 years of development. It has been tested by war, tempered by fire, and trialled in the harshest working conditions imaginable. It will filter dust, neutralise poisons, capture bacteria and feed fresh air to keep the wearer alive and safe - but only under one condition. The mask has to fit.

Industrial Gas Detection

Two recent and successful prosecutions brought by the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) act as a stark reminder of the importance, among other systems and procedures, of having appropriate and functioning gas detection equipment to help protect employees from serious injury or even death.

Air Quality Monitoring

This article considers air quality monitoring in the UK, in particular its role in meeting the requirements of the Convention on Long range Transboundary Air Pollution. It will describe the direct monitoring of air pollutants, and also how modelling is used to give a picture for the UK. Finally it will consider another key aspect of air quality - that of monitoring for effects.

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Weather Monitoring and Urban Air Quality

Being able to make good overall estimates, helps to control air quality and implement preventive actions to reduce emissions

Gas Detection

Analysis Methods For Particular Harmful Gases

Gas Detection

Knowledge of the nature and amounts of pollutants in the atmosphere is of major importance in air quality. Consequently there is a need for precise and reliable instruments for analysis of particular gaseous pollutants. Such pollutants include sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). This article will review detection methods for these and, more briefly, for other pollutant gases.

Monitoring Heavy Metals

The UK Heavy Metals Monitoring Network measures the concentration of metals in ambient air in order to assess the UK’s compliance with European air quality legislation and the exposure of the general population to potentially harmful compounds. This article describes the operation of the Network, and how its constituent monitoring sites around the UK have recently been reorganised in order to ensure compliance with European legislation.

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Detecting Gases

Walking through a drill-site area, a worker smells rotten eggs and stops for a minute or two to assess where a gas leak might exist. Rubbing his itchy eyes as he investigates further, he notices that he no longer smells the tell-tale hydrogen sulphide odour. He does not realize that the gas has deadened his olfactory senses and unless he leaves the area within seconds, he could lose consciousness and possibly his life. A well-researched and planned gas-detection strategy can help reduce the likelihood of situations such as this.

Automated Analysis of PAHs by HPLC

Automated solid phase extraction (SPE) has been combined with HPLC and fluorescence detection for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water samples. This approach offers lower operating costs and improved productivity as sample numbers increase.

Continuous Emissions Monitoring

The topic of monitoring stationary sources emissions is very broad and many books have been published on the subject. This article is aimed at giving an overview of some of the techniques employed.

Industrial Gas Detection

In many industrial plants possible leaks of toxic or flammable gas constitute the primary source of hazards for plant/buildings and for workers. For this reason a fast detection of gas leaks or vapour clouds is important to prevent hazardous conditions, and it is in these cases where fixed gas detection systems assume a primary role in safety.

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Calibrate with Confidence

Gas detectors are life saving devices. They are precision instruments that are built solely to measure and monitor potentially lethal gases in the workplace. The only way to ensure that a gas monitor will accurately respond to the hazardous gas or gases it is designed to detect is to calibrate the sensors against a known gas standard.

Air Quality - Cleared for Take-Off

Although you can’t open a window or pop outside for air at 30,000 feet, passenger aircraft cabins have many similarities with modern offices in the environmental problems they face. Both aircraft and office buildings attempt to balance energy efficiency with other needs such as adequate ventilation, clean air, and acceptable temperature and humidity levels. In both environments the goal of energy efficiency is achieved by decreasing the amount of outside air drawn into the ventilation system and hoping for an acceptable balance between health and efficiency.

Respiratory Protection [November 2008]

Expanding upon the European Directive 98/24/EC of April 19981, the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) updated the Controls Of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) regulations in November 2002 and included the requirement that any RPE supplied by the employer is Fit Tested with the wearer.

Asbestos: The Hidden Killer

Every week 20 tradesmen die from asbestos related diseases - and the number is set to increase over the next few years. Steve Coldrick, Director of the Disease Reduction Programme with the Health and Safety Executive explains why a major campaign “Asbestos: The Hidden Killer” will be launched in October to raise awareness of the real risk that tradesmen face.

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Air Quality Monitoring

We would all like to gaze into a crystal ball to see how the industry is going to develop but we do know of forthcoming standards and legislation which will affect the way we operate. European standards developed by CEN have a mandatory requirement and must be adopted by all states within the European Union.

Dry Chemical Odour Scrubbers

Dry chemical scrubbers are uniquely suited for use in collection system pump stations and in waste water treatment plants for the control of odours. They are inherently simple in their operation and function continuously without operator attention for extended periods of time. This type of scrubber, through the use of specialised gas-phase or dry-scrubbing air filtration media types(medias), is essentially able to achieve the complete removal of odours without the need for additional dilution air.

Landfill Gas Projects Under The CDM

The climate is changing. This poses a serious threat to the world’s environment, and is expected to negatively impact on human activities. Today it is widely accepted amongst the scientific community that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are a key cause of the changes in the Earth’s climate over the last 100 years and that prompt action is necessary. Responses to climate change range from efforts made by individuals and firms to reduce their carbon footprints, to unprecedented international cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article looks in detail at one of these international actions - the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which involves the implementation of emission reducing projects in developing countries - with a focus on how landfill gas projects are being given a much-needed boost in developing countries.

Industrial Gas Detection

There is a popular belief that when you install a gas detection system you make the installation safe. This incorrect and dangerous statement cannot be further from the truth. An installation cannot be made safe by such a simple action; the safety of any installation begins at the design stage - good engineering and materials, and follows through construction to the development of safe operating practices undertaken by trained and competent personnel. After the correct engineering and development of safe operating practices only then can gas detection accept a role to assist and improve the overall safety of the installation.

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Breathing Apparatus

In this article, we will explore the development of respiratory protective equipment (RPE). We will look at its uses over the years, up to and including the latest designs, features and developments; many of which have resulted from lessons learned as a result of tragic events and loss of life.

HSI's Gas Detection FORUM

The fourth of our five manufacturers forums for 2008 concentrates on the field of gas detection. Once again we approached manufacturers from around the world with the same questions and these are the answers we received.

Continuous Emissions Monitoring

Air pollution is an important issue of concern to the general public as exposure to low levels of some toxic species emitted by industrial processes may be hazardous to human health or impact adversely on the environment. This article describes how the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), a National Measurement Institute (NMI) in the UK supported by the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS), has been involved in assisting Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the development of the next generation of novel continuous emissions monitors (CEMs).

Respiratory Protection [May 2008]

In order to begin to prevent injuries to the respiratory system it is vital to understand and realise what level of airborne particulate or other elements are present in the working environment and of what type.

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Air Emission Monitoring

The effects of the EU Directives are being felt by all involved in the majority of industry. One of the key elements of the directives is the requirement for quality monitoring data not only for compliance testing but also for calibration of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS).

Portable Gas Detection

Minimising workers risk to atmospheric hazards - There are a large number of occupations that require the entry to a confined space. A definition of a confined space varies in the legislation from one country to another, but the differences in effect are slight. In essence it is a space that is large enough to enter and perform work but has limited or restricted means for entry and exit and is not designed for continuous human occupancy. Anyone entering such a space by virtue of its enclosed nature is at increased risk of being overcome by toxic fumes, vapour and oxygen deficiency, drowning, extreme temperature or explosion.

Confined Spaces

A number of people are killed or seriously injured in confined spaces each year. This happens in a wide range of industries, from those involving complex plant to simple storage vessels. Those killed include not only people working in the confined space but those who try to rescue them without proper training and equipment.

Confined Spaces

The “best” confined space gas detector doesn’t come from any one manufacturer; it’s the instrument that best fulfils the requirements for your confined space programme.

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Continuous Particulate Emissions Monitoring

The subject of Continuous Particulate emission monitoring to satisfy regulatory requirements is of relatively new interest as a result of recent changes in legislation. Historically regulators were concerned with the visual impact of the discharge from a stack and therefore emission limits were expressed in terms of colour or opacity. However with the advent of emission limits for a process being defined in terms of mass concentration (expressed in mg/ m3) the issue of continuous particulate monitoring has become a new and growing regulatory requirement.

Getting the Measure of Methane

Methane makes money. It generates energy revenues, carbon credits and is part of bio-treatment sludge processing. In most of the world it has only just begun. Measuring what we are doing and being responsible with this potentially damaging greenhouse gas makes good sense.

Heavy Metals Monitoring

The need for air quality measurements has many drivers including: measuring the exposure of the general population to a variety of toxic compounds; informing policy development, assessing compliance with legislative target values. The measurement infrastructure must be able to readily respond to rapidly changing requirements such as the specification of new pollutants, or assessment of episodes e.g. trans-boundary pollution events. In particular, the determination of the total concentrations of metals in ambient air is of great importance within this framework.

Humidity Measurement

The concept of humidity starts with basic thermodynamics. According to the phase rule, for a system in phase equilibrium:

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Gas Detection

Mines can be hazardous environments and the possibility of fire, flood, explosion, asphyxiation, toxic gas poisoning and collapse has the potential to simultaneously affect a large number of people.

Continuous Emissions Monitoring

There has never been such a wide range of analysers and systems available for continuous emissions monitoring from industrial processes as there is today. In the UK there are many manufacturers and distributors offering CEMS (continuous emissions monitoring systems) using a variety of technologies. These include Ultraviolet (UV) and Infrared (IR) absorption, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), chemiluminescence and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for gaseous species as well as various techniques for particulate monitors.

Confined Space Entry

Poe, whilst writing his classic short story, succeeded in conjuring up a vision of "the pit" as a deep, dark place full of grotesque fates for those unfortunate enough to enter. In the modern health and safety context, "the pit" is just one example of the broad range of confined space entry scenarios. All of which are capable of bringing injury, illness and death to the unaware, untrained, unassessed and the unprepared.

Respiratory Protection [April 2006]

Changes in Europe within the field of respiratory protection against solid and liquid particles.

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Why Use Gas Detectors? [Jan 2006]

Emerging Technologies Can Enhance Their Effectiveness. Gas detectors form an important part of safety systems to help protect users from the effects of explosion, fire or ill-health (acute, ie short term and chronic, ie long term) arising from flammable, toxic or asphyxiant gases.

Gas Detection In The Environment

Awareness of air pollution issues is everywhere

Asbestos Testing & Airborne Fibre Monitoring

Quality control requirements and scientific testing methods

Measuring CO2 from Our Breathing Soil

The increase of the global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is by many scientists regarded as the most severe environmental problem we are facing today because of its impact on the global warming and consequential effects such as possible sea level rise, retreat of glaciers, changes in intensities of tropical cyclones and severe local storm activity.

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Sorbent Technology

Whether you are already using sorbents in some format, or whether this application is a new concept to you, it is interesting to see how the simple sorbent tube started out - the work and research involved to create a device many of us now take for granted.

Emissions Trading

The formulation of a market needs a buyer and a seller and, at times, due to high transaction costs, a specialised broker.

Gas Detectors

Gas detectors do 'exactly what it says on the tin' – they detect the presence, and in many cases levels, of gases.

Confined Space Entry

When considering confined space entry procedure, employers integrate many factors into a plan to ensure the safety of all involved. In the UK under the Confined Spaces Regulations 19972, employers must first try to avoid the need for a confined space entry.

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Gas Detection

When using or being exposed to hazardous substances at work people's health may be put at risk as a result of over exposure to these materials

Respiratory Protection for Industry

Whilst circumstances will generally dictate which form of respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is most suitable to a particular application, recent technological advancements have meant that there is now much more of a choice within those parameters.

Gas Detection Technology

There is an array of different sensors for different applications. Jörg Kühn explains the benefits and disadvantages of each kind and how to use them safely.

The Air We Breathe

What do hospitals mean to people today? A healthcare institution to treat our ailments? A place to be cured? Hospitals were originally considered ‘places of hospitality’, and over the years they have transformed many times, along with the patient experience.

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